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Factors associated with intention to participate in a randomized yoga intervention among African American breast cancer survivors.
Background: Physical activity improves patient outcomes in breast cancer survivors and it has been suggested that a gentler form of physical activity such as yoga may help promote regular exercise participation. As African Americans are less likely to be yoga users compared with Caucasians, there is a need to understand factors associated with intention to engage in yoga, in order to design successful interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to examine if certain psychological and functional participant characteristics were associated with intention to engage in a yoga program using Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) constructs. Methods: Thirty-three women were randomized to a restorative yoga group or a waitlist control group. Fourteen African-American breast cancer survivors (33-64 years, at least 12 months post-treatment) participated in an 8-week restorative yoga program and were asked to complete baseline measures of TBP (attitudes (positive or negative attitude about engaging in the yoga program), subjective norms (social support one receives regarding yoga participation), perceived behavioral control (perceived ease or difficulty of engaging in the yoga program) and intention), perceived stress, depression, sleep quality and fatigue. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient assessments revealed significant relationships between: 1) attitude and fatigue (r = -.58) and attitude and sleep quality (r = .72) (participants reporting low fatigue and better sleep quality at baseline had more positive attitudes towards engaging in the yoga program); 2) depression and subjective norm (r = -.57) (women who reported lower depression scores at baseline tended to have more support from others to engage in the yoga program) and 3) sleep quality and perceived behavioral control (r = .581) (women reporting better sleep quality at baseline were likely to be more confident in their ability to engage in the yoga program) (all Ps < .05). Conclusions: Understanding factors associated with intention to engage in yoga among African American breast cancer survivors may help create successful theory based interventions and ultimately maximize adherence in future yoga programs.