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A randomized clinical trial comparing adjuvant radiation versus chemo-RT versus chemotherapy alone after radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer.
Poster Session B: Prostate Cancer; Urothelial Carcinoma; Penile, Urethral, and Testicular Cancers
Background: There is growing interest in using adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) to reduce local failures (LF) after radical cystectomy (RC) for locally advanced bladder cancer. A previous RCT demonstrated significantly improved LF & OS with adjuvant RT vs. RC alone. An RCT was performed to compare the efficacy of adjuvant RT vs chemo-RT vs chemo alone after RC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary endpoints were OS, LRFS, DMFS and toxicity. Methods: Patients ≤ 70 yrs with ECOG PS ≤ 2 with locally advanced bladder cancer and ≥ 1 high-risk feature who underwent RC with negative margins at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute from 2002 – 2008 were enrolled. High risk features included stage ≥ pT3b, grade 3, or positive nodes. Patients were randomized following RC to RT (45 Gy in 1.5 Gy/fx given BID with 3D-conformal RT), chemo-RT with 2 cycles of gemcitabine/cisplatin before and after RT, or 4 cycles of chemo alone. The chemo alone arm was added as a 2nd randomization in 2007. Patients were followed regularly with CT scans q 6 months in the first 2 years & then yearly. Results: 198 patients were enrolled. 78 received RT, 75 chemo-RT and 45 received chemo alone. Median age was 54 (range 27 – 70) and the M:F ratio was 4:1. 53% had urothelial carcinoma, 41% had SCC and 6% other. Median follow-up was 19 mo (range 1 – 127 mo). The RT, chemo-RT and chemo alone arms had similar characteristics except for age (median 55, 52 and 55, respectively, p = 0.03) and tumor size (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in DFS, DMFS or OS, although there was a trend toward improved DFS favoring the RT-containing arms with 3 yr rates of 63%, 68% and 56% in the RT, chemo-RT and chemo arms (p = 0.25). LRFS was significantly improved for the RT arms vs. chemo alone, with 3 yr rates of 87%, 96% and 69% (p < 0.01), regardless of histology. Treatment was reasonably well-tolerated with late grade ≥ 3 GI toxicity of 8%, 7% & 2%, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first RCT comparing adjuvant RT (+/- chemo) vs. adjuvant chemo following cystectomy for bladder cancer. RT was associated with significantly improved local control compared to chemo alone. There was no significant difference in DFS, DMFS, or OS. Clinical trial information: NCT01734798
Presentations by Mohamed S. Zaghloul:
A randomized clinical trial comparing adjuvant radiation versus chemo-RT versus chemotherapy alone after radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer.Meeting: 2016 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium Abstract No: 356Session: Oral Abstract Session B: Urothelial Carcinoma; Penile, Urethral, and Testicular Cancers (Oral Abstract Session)